How Does Alcohol Affects The Brain?, It is very Bad


How Does Alcohol Affect The Brain

Alcohol interrupts processes in the brain and makes its organs function differently than they usually do. Alcohol increases the release of dopamine from the reward center, causing brain pathways to narrow dramatically.

It causes your brain to think that alcohol makes you feel great when, in fact, it simulates depression. It also increases the production of HBA in our mind, which can lead to nausea. 

The long – term effects you will experience from drinking alcohol will not be medical or even physical.

Your brain begins to produce chemicals to cope with the regular onslaught of alcohol. The parts of your brain that tell you when something is a bad idea work another way when you are under the influence.

These imbalances alter everything from your sleep patterns, to your moods, and even how you experience temperature fluctuations. 

The Link Between Alcohol & Dementia

here can be long – term changes in your brain. For someone who has been drinking a lot for a long time, long-term alcohol consumption can lead to long-term brain problems.

The most common symptoms are those of depression, anxiety, and other mental health problems in those who don’t drink alcohol regularly. I’m going to mainly discuss the associated effects of binge drinking and just how it directly affects the brain and body. 

Studies have shown that drinking small to moderate amounts of alcohol can have health benefits, but they have also been clear about something else.

When a person drinks above or below moderate levels of alcohol, it can have devastating effects on the body and brain, both short – term and permanent.

The effects, such as slurred speech, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms, may be quite clear.

But the effects of occasional drinking on your brain and body may not be. It is why many of us turn to alcohol in social situations or during difficult times. 

However, it is worth noting that heavy drinking does not cause these outages.

Alcohol consumption in excess can reduce the brain’s ability to transfer memories from the short – term to the long term memory, so people who turn to it may not be able to recall much of their time while intoxicated.

Blackouts can also occur if a person drinks too much for too short a period. For example, if you drink six drinks in one hour, you are more likely to blackout than slowly drinking ten drinks over a few hours. 

Alcohol poisoning occurs when you drink large amounts of alcohol over a short period. Drinking alcohol can have long-term effects on the brain, including impaired cognitive function, dementia, and memory problems.

Alcohol causes the hippocampus, an area of the brains linked to memory and reasoning, to contract. Researchers have long known that brain atrophy and narrowing are common in heavy drinkers. 


Hard-drinking can be three drinks per day for women and four to five drinks per day for men.

Known factors which determine methods of alcohol affecting the brain:

  • How much and how often drinking happen
  • Age when drinking first began
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure
  • Gender, genetic background
  • Degree of education
  • Vague health status

Indication of alcoholism:

Physical signs

  • Bad coordination
  • Slurred speech
  • Sluggish reaction time

Psychological signs

  • Defective thinking
  • Memory failure

Behavioral signs

  • Engaging in unsafe acts
  • Addictive acts
  • Depression Signs

Withdrawal or abstinence of drinking leads to delirium tremens, and sweating, nausea, shakiness, anxiety, which might include auditory or visual hallucinations.

The immediate effects of alcohol are similar. It breaks down when you consume alcohol. Still, with ingestion, your liver is not able to keep up with the demands, and the stays in the bloodstream. The effects of alcohol on the mind depend upon an individual’s blood alcohol concentration

Method of how Alcohol Alter the Brain?

An increase in BAC cooperates with the brain. By acting upon specific areas in mind prone to chemical 23, once in the central nervous system, alcohol causes alterations.

Regions of the Brain Affected by Alcohol

Mesolimbic pathway

Alcohol stimulates the reward pathway, or the pathway, within the releases and mind dopamine.

It is the pathway involved with dependence. Studies have demonstrated that by drinking, a pathway that’s repeatedly triggered, in this instance, becomes covered by a glue which makes it difficult to break old ones or to form new synapses.

 It explains why addiction is hard to conquer; the pattern held together that way in the mind and is ingrained.

How alcohol affects the brain MKexpressnet

Frontal Lobe & Prefrontal Cortex 

 This area is involved in goal setting, motivation, planning, decision making, judgment problem solving, social behavior, and impulse inhibition.

Neuropathological studies have demonstrated a considerable decrease in the number of neurons in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics and generally reduced brain mass relative to controls (non-alcohol drinkers).

Damage to the frontal lobe/prefrontal cortex leads to psychological and personality changes.


The hippocampus lies within the system and is involved in spatial navigation, motivation, emotion, and crucial.

there is evidence that the hippocampus can also play a role in anxiety and depression.

The hippocampus is also among the few sites for neurogenesis in the adult brain. Neurogenesis is the practice of new brain cells forming from stem cells (undifferentiated cells that can contribute to all different kinds of cells).

Studies indicate that doses of alcohol interrupt the development of cells, which contributes to a deficit in areas like the hippocampus, which will result in memory and learning. However, there seems to be an increased vulnerability to relapse.


Also, part of the limbic system, the hypothalamus, has links to a lot of methods and is involved in memory and learning, regulatory purposes, eating/drinking, temperature control, hormone regulation, and emotion.

Damage to the hypothalamus because of alcohol contributes to memory shortages, and amnesia may follow.


The cerebellum accounts for roughly 10 percent of the brain’s weight but comprises almost half of the neurons.

Tiny but mighty, the cerebellum coordinates voluntary movement, balance, eye motion, and incorporated into the circuitry for cognition and emotion. Alcohol abuse contributes to atrophy within the white matter of the cerebellum.


Within the temporal lobe, the amygdala has links to the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the thalamus and mediates feelings (love, fear, anger, anxiety) and aids in identifying the danger.

Method of how Alcohol Affect the Brain: Alcohol & Neurotransmitters

By changing the number of neurotransmitters within the areas mentioned the brain chemistry affects.

Neuro-transmitters are the chemical messengers within the brain that stretch out through the body and transmit signals.

The alterations of hormones within the areas that are specific cause changes in the behavior and motor functions of an individual. Neurotransmitters increase activity in the brain and are excitatory, or else they are inhibitory or decrease activity. 

GABA and also NMDA Receptors

Alcohol trickles down the brain by binding to the inhibitory GABA  and NMDA receptors.  This slow down results in the slurring of words decreased memory and tiredness.


An excitatory neurotransmitter which is boosted within the mesolimbic pathway, regulating the compensation circuitry.


 The discharge of norepinephrine, in connection with the interim increase of adrenaline, cortisol, and dopamine, produces a stressfree, party feeling.

Lifelong alcohol misuse Results in a reduction of neurons, which release norepinephrine, .which, in return, contributes to a negative impact on memory and learning, information processing, and attention.


 Alcohol is an excitatory neurotransmitter but blocks from binding glutamate. The inability to bind to its receptor contributes to depressant effects.


Another neurotransmitter involved with the pathway’s impacts is known as Serotonin. Studies have demonstrated a 50 percent decrease in cells resulting in alterations in mood.

After the increase of the neurotransmitters, the stimulation wears off, and a build-up is of the neurotransmitters; NMDA and GABA. It ends from the gloomy, subdued, and tired”afterglow” of a night of binge drinking.

Alcohol-Related Syndromes

 Intake studies have shown a general reduction in sugar metabolism blood flow, and density. The decrease in glucose metabolism as a consequence of alcohol consumption is because of a drop in thiamine.

Thiamine (also called vitamin B1) is vital for all cells in the body, particularly the brain. The brain neurotransmitters synthesis and needs thiamine due to its role.

A drop in thiamine can happen in two ways because of alcohol consumption. One is a diet, and the other is because of the fall inactivation and absorption.

They eventually become lethargic during drinking, although the body does have reservations of thiamine. If heavy drinking becomes persistent, those reserves do not need to ability to recover, and an individual begins to have a thiamine deficiency.

Wernicke Encephalopathy

An individual with Wernicke Encephalopathy will suffer from mental confusion, oculomotor disturbances (interference with muscles which move the eyes), and difficulty with muscular coordination.

It affects 80 to 90 percent of people with Wernicke encephalopathy. People have trouble walking and issues especially anterograde amnesia, with amnesia or forming new memories.

Alcohol-Related Dementia Research shows the probability of dementia is three times larger in heavy drinkers compared to other men and women.

Dementia due to alcohol encompasses Korsakoffs psychosis and Wernicke encephalopathy. Syndromes because of alcohol consumption are Hepatic Encephalopathy:

Liver dysfunction occurs after chronic excessive alcohol abuse resulting in changes in sleep patterns and mood, along with shaking hands and shortened attention span.

The liver damage brought on by alcohol leads to an increase of ammonia in the blood, which has a neurotoxic effect on the mind.

Cerebellar Syndrome with Anterior Superior Vermal Atrophy: The individual presents symptoms of a broad-based gait, difficulty with eye movements, and dysarthria (slowed or slurred speech).

Closing Thoughts on How Does Alcohol Affect the Brain

  • Excessive use of alcohol triggers a range of molecular and chemical alterations in the mind, which creates the basis for numerous behavioral and physical indications. Due to neurogenesis, abstinence of alcohol inside an interval may observe a retrieval of cells within these areas.
  • Finally, though the research demonstrating a connection involving early-onset dementia and alcohol remains in its early stages, it is a strong warning with the ever-growing assortment of harmful effects of excessive alcohol ingestion.